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Related post: Some poisons can be demonstrated much better by tests on animals than by any chemic tests. For this object, they should be isolated in as pure a form as possible, by the methods laid down in this section. The application of these life tests, which have not hitherto received the attention that they deserve, falls peculiarly into the province of the scientifically trained physician. OUTLINE OF TOXICOLOGIC ANALYSIS 1 Precautions. The first duty of the analyst is to guard the material confided to him from the wilful or accidental introduction of poisons. For this purpose, precaution must be taken that no other person has access to the material; and every reagent and apparatus must be tested personally. As a rule, the different organs must be kept strictly separated throughout the analysis. It will depend on circumstances whether the analysis of the individual organs is made at the same time, or successively. If the latter is decided on, the largest organ, or that most likely to contain the poison, is examined first. It may be advisable, however, to mix a weighed quantity (one-fourth or one-third) of the comminuted organs, and to use this mixture for the first analysis. Since the material to be analyzed is usually limited in amount, and can not be replaced, the examination must be arranged in such a way that as many tests as possible can be made successively on a single sample of the material. An economy of time and material is also secured by obtaining, as quickly as possible, some idea of what poisons may be present. This may be done by some easy preliminary tests, or by using so- called "group-reactions" which, if negative, will exclude a number of substances. The. symptoms may also have furnished some important hints, but should never prevent the complete examination of the substance. During the isolation and the preliminary search for the poison, only the most im- portant tests should be applied. When the poison has been isolated, however, it should be subjected to every known test. A sample of the isolated poison should be preserved, in stable form. Preliminary Examination. The systematic examination is begun by a careful inspection of the portions of the alimentary canal. These are opened, and extended on an inverted evaporating dish, mucous surface upward. Pathologic lesions are looked for, as also particles of the poison which may be adherent. A magnifying lens should be employed. (Gran- ules of arsenic have often been isolated in this way.) The contents of the alimentary canal, or vomited matter, are subjected to a similar close inspection. The odor should be carefully observed. During this exami- nation, the reaction to litmus paper should be noted (caustic acids or alkalies). Each organ is then hashed, carefully weighed, and replaced in hermetically sealed jars. 2 Isolation of the Poison. No routine schema of analysis will fit all cases, since each presents its own problems. However, the following illustrates the usual procedure. Division of Material. Ordinarily, each organ, after comminution, is divided into the following portions carefully weighed: One-third is reserved for control; one- twentieth for preliminary tests. The remainder is divided into four parts, used respect- ively for the search for volatile, fixed organic and inorganic poisons, and for reserve. If the quantity of material is very scanty, two equal portions will suffice : one is reserved for preliminary tests, easily decomposable poisons, and control; the other is examined successively for easily volatile poisons, for fixed organic poisons, and for metals. Volatile Poisons. A portion of the material is acidulated with tartaric acid (adding water if necessary), and distilled from a flask or retort con- 1 This section should be studied in connection with the practical exercises. Gadamer's "Lehr- buch der chemischen Toxicologie" is an excellent reference book. 2 As soon as the absence of volatile poisons has been proven, the contents of the jars may be covered with 95 per cent, alcohol. 52 MANUAL OF PHARMACOLOGY nectt'd with a Liebig's condenser. 1 Buy Procyclidine It is advisable to pass a slow current of live steam through the mass. The distillation is continued until about two-thirds of the liquid have been collected. The distillate is collected in three portions. The odor is noted (volatile oils, chloroform, ether, :.l the characteristic tests applied for phosphorus, phenol, cyanids, ali-ohol, 2 chloroform, chloral, etc. Phosphorus. A preliminary test for this element must be made with silver nitrate and lead acetate papers before the distillation is begun. If this test indicates iN presence, the condenser is set vertically downward, and the distillation is carried on in a darkened room. All air is expelled from the apparatus by a stream of carbon dioxid. This is then shut off, and replaced by live steam, the flask being heated at the same time. If phosphorus is present, a luminous ring appears in the tubes r condenser, shifting its position when the heat applied to the flask is altered (Mitscher- m el hod). The appearance of this phenomenon proves the presence of phosphorus absolutely. There are, however, quite a number of substances the presence of which interferes with the formation of this ring. Almost any volatile substance may do so; turpentine, chloroform, ether, alcohol; and alcohol is often present, as it is usually given as an antidote. The absence of the ring does not, therefore, prove the absence of phosphorus. The distillate will contain phosphorus in the lower stages of oxidation, as phosphorous or hypophosphorous acid. The best way to prove phosphorus in this is to add some bromin \\.iter to the distillate and to evaporate to dryness. This results in phosphoric acid, which may be demonstrated by magnesia mixture or ammonium molybdate. The quantitative determination of phosphorus is not important; because if it is present at all, it is present as a toxic agent. Cyanids. The presence of mere traces of hydrocyanic acid in the distillate is no proof of poisoning, since these may have been introduced in the way of food (almonds or other seeds). A quantitative estimation, by means of silver nitrate, may be necessary. The qualitative proof also requires two Procyclidine 5mg Procyclidine Tablets further precautions: With the method which we have given, ferrocyanids might also be decomposed and give rise to hydrocyanic acid; and since ferrocyanids are not toxic, this would lead to wrong conclusions. To eliminate this, the original liquid is filtered and the Prussian blue test applied to it directly. Mercuric cyanid does not yield its hydrocyanic acid in this treatment. If it is suspected, the material must be treated with hydrogen sulphid. Distillation from Alkaline Solution. It is sometimes recommended to add water to the residue in the retort, to make it alkaline with sodium carbonate, and to distill again. The distillate contains ammonium, amines, chloroform (if chloral was present), and the volatile alkaloids. This step may generally be omitted, as these poisons are discovered in other parts of the process; or a small sample may be heated in a test-tube with sodium carbonate, and the odor noted. Extraction of Fixed Organic Poisons. The extraction, separation and purification of these poisons are based on their special solubility in certain solvents. As a rule, they are all fairly soluble in acidulated water and
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